1. the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake.
2. The epicenter of a hypothethical earthqauake is located at the point where the earthquake starts to rupture. The point directly above the Earth's surface is the epicenter. It is the place where the strain energy is reserved in the rock is discharged which marks the point where the fault starts to explode.
3. if you have only two data from recording station you will difficulty encountering the exact location of the epicenter. because triangulation method only required 3 recording station. if you have 2 recording station it is possible that you have a two epicenter.
4. The distance of the epicenter from the seismic station is equals to 127 km(minimum). Using the data obtained from the seismic station, seismologists can read the lag time of 16.9 seconds of P waves before S waves detected. P (Primary) and S (Secondary) waves had an interval 16.9 seconds. P waves travel at 5 km/s while S waves do 3 km/s. That means P wave travels 60% faster than the S waves.
5. The main importance in determining the epicentre is so that the fault that ruptured causing the earthquake can be identified. ... If the fault is previously unknown (such as the 2010 Canterbury earthquake), then it is important because it means that the hazard models for the area need improvement.
These two points typically are miles apart, and if there is any slope to the fault line, the epicenter will be many miles away from where the fault appears at the earth's surface. In summary, the distance between a seismic station and the epicenter of an earthquake is irrelevant.