the first battle of bud dajo, also known as the bud dajo massacre, was a counter insurgency action fought by the united states army against moros in march 1906, during the moro rebellion phase of the philippine–american war. after the united states revoked the bates treaty in march 1904, the moros renewed their resistance to american authority. this took form of sporadic violence and refusal to pay taxes. the governor of moro province, major general leonard wood, had been unsuccessful in efforts to pacify the insurgents in jolo island. consequently, moro attacks became more frequent, and the insurgents came to believe that the americans were too weak to stop them.
in response to rumors that the americans planned to exterminate them, several hundred moros, including women and children, moved to bud dajo, where legend held that spirits at the site would help warriors in times of need. bud dajo, the crater of an extinct volcano, is about six miles from the city of jolo. rising some 2,100 feet with steep, heavily jungled slopes, it was accessible only by three narrow paths. as such, it provided an easily defender position and was well stocked with provisions.
when negotiations between several friendly datus (chiefs) and hostile moros failed to bring about the surrender of the insurgents, wood commenced a campaign on march 5, 1906, to end the standoff at bud dajo. he sent u.s. and philippine constabulary troops under colonel joseph w. duncan to put down the insurgents. meanwhile, another attempt to negotiate ended in failure on march 6. as their artillery bombarded bud dajo to weaken resistance, the attackers hacked their way through the dense jungle and up the slope. on the evening of march 6, duncan’s men paused midway up the mountain and bivouacked for the night. in the darkness, moro drums and chanting could be heard from the crate, while moro snipers periodically fired at the troops.
the following day, the advance up the summit continued as american artillery fired ineffectively at the defenders. on march 7, while taking heavy casualties, many of the moros feigned death and then attempted to ambush duncan’s forces when they neared the top of the mountain. the americans troops then attacked the cottas (forts) and the other moro positions, taking bud dajo on march 8. once the outer rim has been secured, artillery and machine guns were employed. as wood reported: “all the defenders were killed as near as could be counted”.
in the battle, 18 americans lost their lives, and another 52 were wounded. wood estimated the number of enemy dead at 600, including women and children, although some estimates ran as high as 900. corpses were piled five deep, and many of the bodies were wounded multiple times. only seven were captured, three women and four children. eighteen men escaped from the mountain, and it is possible this number could have been double. wood censored the telegrams from jolo describing the casualties.
although u.s. authorities considered the battle of bud dajo to be a significant victory and commended wood for his actions, some in the u.s. press viewed it a little more than a massacre, particularly given the deaths of so many noncombatants. moro practice was for warriors to take their wives and children with them, but some in the press said that wood should merely laid siege to the mountain. wood’s friend, presidents theodore roosevelt, sent him a congratulatory telegram, and secretary of war william howard taft also approved.
in response to criticism, wood’s explanation of the high number of women and children killed stated that the women of bud dajo dressed as men and joined in the combat, and that the men used children as living shields. a second explanation was given by the governor-general of the philippines, henry clay ide, who reported that the women and children were collateral damage, having been killed during the artillery barrages. these conflicting explanations of the high number of women and child casualties brought accusations of a cover-up, adding to the criticism.
the controversy soon died down, as local datus and the sultan of sulu, religious leader of the region, believed that the action at bud dajo would bring about long-term stability. unfortunately, moro resistance continued, leading to another bud dajo campaign in 1911 and the battle of bud bagsak in june 1913
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non-verbal communication in different cultures. facial expressions are mostly similar in most cultures as many of them like smile and cry are innate. according to researches, six expressions are universal; they are, happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger and surprise.
subject = yellow, bold; verb = green, underline
subjects and verbs must agree in number.
if the subject is singular, the verb must be singular too.
example: she writes every day.
if the subject is plural, the verb must also be plural.
example: they write every day.
sometimes, however, it seems a bit more complicated than this.
when the subject of the sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, use a plural verb.
example: the doctoral student and the committee members write every day.
example: the percentage of employees who called in sick and the number of employees who left their jobs within 2 years are are reflective of the level of job satisfaction.
when there is one subject and more than one verb, the verbs throughout the sentence must agree with the subject.
example: interviews are one way to collect data and allow researchers to gain an in-depth understanding of participants.
example: an assumption is something that is generally accepted as true and is an important consideration when conducting a doctoral study.
when a phrase comes between the subject and the verb, remember that the verb still agrees with the subject, not the noun or pronoun in the phrase following the subject of the sentence.
example: the student, as well as the committee members, is excited.
example: the student with all the master’s degrees is very motivated.
example: strategies that the teacher uses to encourage classroom participation include using small groups and clarifying expectations.
example: the focus of the interviews was nine purposively selected participants.
when two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, use a singular verb.
example: the chairperson or the ceo approves the proposal before proceeding.
when a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is closest to the verb. this is also called the rule of proximity.
example: the student or the committee members write every day.
example: the committee members or the student writes every day.
the words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb.
example: each of the participants was willing to be recorded.
example: neither alternative hypothesis was accepted.
example: i will offer a $5 gift card to everybody who participates in the study.
example: no one was available to meet with me at the preferred times.
noncount nouns take a singular verb.
example: education is the key to success.
example: diabetes affects many people around the world.
example: the information obtained from the business owners was relevant to include in the study.
example: the research i found on the topic was limited.
some countable nouns in english such as earnings, goods, odds, surroundings, proceeds, contents, and valuables only have a plural form and take a plural verb.
example: the earnings for this quarter exceed expectations.
example: the proceeds from the sale go to support the homeless population in the city.
example: locally produced goods have the advantage of shorter supply chains.
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